Toxonomy of 16 influence tactics

How are these tactics used in advertising?

fromWorkingPsychology.com

1. Reward

I’ll reward you if you do it. “I’ll throw in a pair of speakers if you buy it today.” “Thanks! I’ll make certain your manager knows how helpful you were.”

2. Punishment

I’ll punish you if you don’t do it. “If you don’t buy it today, I won’t be able to offer you this special incentive price again.” “If I can’t get it at that price tomorrow, then I’ll take my business elsewhere.”

3. Positive Expertise

Speaking as an authority on the subject, I can tell you that rewards will occur if you do X, because of the nature of reality. “If you start working out at our gym regularly, you’ll find that people are more attracted to you physically.”

4. Negative Expertise

Speaking as an authority on the subject, I can tell you that punishments will occur if you do Y, because of the nature of reality. “If you don’t buy it today, you may never get another chance–our stock is almost sold out.”

5. Liking, Ingratiation

Getting the prospect into a good frame of mind ­ “Gosh you look nice today. I just love that hat you’re wearing! Should we order dessert before we look over the contracts?”

6. Gifting, Pre-giving

Giving something as a gift, before requesting compliance. The idea is that the target will feel the need to reciprocate later. “Here’s a little something we thought you’d like. Now about those contracts . . .”

7. Debt

Calling in past favors. “After all I’ve done for you! Come on–this time it’s me who needs the favor.”

8. Aversive Stimulation

Continuous punishment, and the cessation of punishment is contingent on compliance. “I’m going to play my classical music at full volume if you insist on playing your rock music at full volume. When you turn yours down, I’ll turn mine down.”

9. Moral Appeal

This tactic entails finding moral common ground, and then using the moral commitments of a person to obtain compliance. “You believe that women should get equal pay for equal work, don’t you? You don’t believe that men are better than women, do you? Then you ought to sign this petition! It’s the right thing to do.”

10. Positive Self-feeling

You’ll feel better if you X. “If you join our club today, you’ll feel better about yourself because you’ll know that you’re improving every day.”

11. Negative Self-feeling

You’ll feel bad if you Y. “If you don’t return it to him and apologize, you’ll find it hard to live with yourself.”

12. Positive Altercasting

Good people do X. “Smart people tend to sign up for the year in advance, because that’s how they can get the best weekly rate.”

13. Negative Altercasting

Only a bad person would do Y. “You’re not like those bad sports that whine and complain when they lose a game.”

14. Altruism

Do-Me-A-Favor. “I really need this photocopied right away, can you help me out?” (An extremely common influence tactic and in wide use among friends and acquaintances).

15. Positive Esteem of Others

Other people will think more highly of you if you X. “People resepect a man who drives a Mercedes.”

16. Negative Esteem of Others

Other people will think worse of you if you Y. “You don’t want people thinking that you’re a drug-head loser, do you?”

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